b. repression. a. We will explore a few of these factors in this section. Males have X and Y chromosomes while females have two Xs. Some biological treatments produce significant undesirable effects. This begs the question of how we can really know that they exist. The main difference between these two systems is the speed with which they act. A patient sees a therapist to help her address her eating disorder. a. psychoanalysis. b. insight. b. ones values and goals. b. laissez-faire parenting style. First, consider the topic of social cognition or the process of collecting and assessing information about others. c. It is full of abnormal evolutionary principles. d. create an ideal set of genes. In terms of what is being reinforced, we will either reinforce responses or time. b. ego. The hope is that the client will engage in self-examination with acceptance and honesty. The principle of multifinality emphasizes that: a. stress is the primary factor leading to abnormality. It sends brief electrical currents through the brain, stimulating a seizure. These two cases demonstrate what principle of developmental psychopathology? b. sociocultural The biopsychosocial model examines the health and other illnesses and product behavior with biological features and behavioral factors.Several health psychologists work with healthcare experts and patients to help . Those who are not assertive are often overly passive and never get what they want or are unreasonably aggressive and only get what they want. Once the electrical impulse reaches the end of the axon, called the axon terminal, it stimulates synaptic vesicles or neurotransmitter sacs to release the neurotransmitter. The answer is continuous. What happens when an electrical impulse reaches a neurons ending? Couples treated by couple therapy seem to show greater improvement than couples who do not receive treatment. a. Which model of abnormality does this quote MOST closely represent? Check out the following from Harvard Health for more on depression and the brain as a cause: Other Books in the Discovering Psychology Series, Module 3: Clinical Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment, Module 5: Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders, Module 8: Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders, Module 9: Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, Module 11: Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders, Module 12: Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders, Module 15: Contemporary Issues in Psychopathology, Instructor Resources Instructions - READ FIRST, 2.1. 65. What is it? Failure to treat many people with severe disturbances appropriately is MOST often a problem with which level of prevention? 56. d. are considered to be fueled by the libido. When we try to establish how abnormality develops, we need to consider how individuals deal with the meaning of life and with the value they find in living. b. who are devout and see God as caring and helpful are the healthiest. There are two forms: classical conditioning, or linking together two types of stimuli, and operant conditioning, or linking together a response with its consequence. What if? Another respondent conditioning way to unlearn a fear is called flooding or exposing the person to the maximum level of stimulus and as nothing aversive occurs, the link between CS and UCS producing the CR of fear should break, leaving the person unafraid. Eventually the fact that no food comes will extinguish this reaction but still, it will be weird for a bit). Freud used three primary assessment techniquesfree association, transference, and dream analysisas part ofpsychoanalysis, or psychoanalytic therapy, to understand the personalities of his patients and expose repressed material. I know my grandmother used to. Which of the following is an argument of critics of the evolutionary perspective? The drug addresses (corrects) the underlying biological reasons for alcohol abuse. b. Rates of eating disorders are higher among women than men, though both genders are affected. 19. b. ethnographic studies. Children who watched the aggressive model behaved aggressively with the Bobo doll while those who saw the gentle model, played nice. a. modeling. a. gestalt The three parts of personality generally work together well and compromise, leading to a healthy personality, but if the conflict is not resolved, intrapsychic conflicts can arise and lead to mental disorders. 153. She could see the answers of the person next to her and briefly considered copying his answers. 27. c. how prejudice and discrimination impact women. Amelia has been told that her course of therapy is likely to take a year or more because it involves the reshaping of her personality and that takes many sessions. Other examples will be discussed throughout this book. Breuer made daily visits and allowed her to share stories from her private theater, which she came to call talking cure or chimney sweeping. Many of the stories she shared were actually thoughts or events she found troubling and reliving them helped to relieve or eliminate the symptoms. It is the most commonly used biological treatment for mental disorders. These words have no affective connotation to them, meaning they do not imply good or bad. If we are angry at someone, we may engage in physical or relational aggression to alleviate this stimulation. Racial and ethnic minorities must contend with prejudice, discrimination, racism, economic hardships, etc. This approach came to be called client-centered therapy. b. cognitive-behavioral The _____ operates in accord with the pleasure principle. d. discounted the concept of abnormality and focused on acceptance. Blaming You focus on someone else as the source of your negative feelings and do not take any responsibility for changing yourself. b. multicultural. Annually, approximately 100,000 undergo ECT to treat conditions such as severe depression, acute mania, suicidality, and some forms of schizophrenia. The greatest strength or appeal of the behavioral model is that its tenets are easily tested in the laboratory, unlike those of the psychodynamic model. d. the ways in which women express their femininity. a. Humans are born with freedom, yet do not naturally strive to reach their full growth potential. In 1935, Bertha was diagnosed with a tumor, and in 1936, she was summoned by the Gestapo to explain anti-Hitler statements she had allegedly made. 73. Watson and Skinner defined behavior as what we do or say, but later behaviorists added what we think or feel. 102. Which type of theorist would focus on the athletes illogical thinking process as a key factor in her subsequent poor performance? Masons parents always pay special attention to him when he takes toys from his little sister. These two cases demonstrate what principle of developmental psychopathology? 37. A primary focus of community-based mental health treatments is: a. education. Which statement would a family systems theorist MOST likely agree with? The BEST explanation for this trend is that these theories: focused on a positive message and living a meaningful life. This process is called counterconditioning, or the reversal of previous learning. This represents the individual pairings of a feared object or situation and relaxation. When her friends or family criticize or express disapproval over something Johannah has done, she experiences a deep depression and self-abuse. a. Fritz Perls b. Joseph Wolpe c. Abraham Maslow d. Aaron Beck, 123. 106. But as you will see, the individual does not have to present with the entire range of symptoms. SAD occurs with greater frequency for those living far north or south from the equator (Melrose, 2015). a. cognitive-behavioral b. humanistic-existential c. sociocultural d. psychodynamic, 7. The paradigm, or model, adopted by people in the Middle Ages to explain abnormal behavior was the _____ model. You're likely receiving a message that encourages you to question your own interpretations and the accuracy of those interpretations. In Panel A, food makes a dog salivate. 76. ChaeWoo has been participating in weekly therapy for several years. Neurotransmitters. a. avoidance b. illogical c. safety d. exposure, 96. e. Models of abnormality are general hypotheses as to the nature of psychological abnormalities. c. humanistic-existential A) illogical thinking patterns. Please note that we will not cover this process in full, but just the parts relevant to our topic of psychopathology. During a therapy session, a client is told to pretend the therapist is her parent and to tell her "parent" why she is angry. The major multidimensional model that is useful in understanding the causes of mental disorders is usually called the biopsychosocial model (BPS). We then discussed biological, psychological, and sociocultural models of abnormality. b. self-actualization. Breuers wife, Mathilde, became jealous of her husbands relationship with the young girl, leading Breuer to terminate treatment in June of 1882 before Anna had fully recovered. Social Sciences; Psychology; Psychology questions and answers; which statement about catergorical vs dimensions models of abnormal behavior is true?A categorial models capture the complexity of mental disorders btter than dimensional modelsB Dimensional models better reflect nature/ reality of disorders than categorial onesC Catergorial models capture the severitu of mental disorders while . c. superego. a. psychodynamic b. multicultural c. cognitive d. humanistic. c. double-blind studies. Outline the structure of personality and how it develops over time. Its popularity has declined since the 1960s and 1970s. A theorist who believes that someone who is labeled a hard worker will, in fact, become a hard worker is MOST likely a _____ theorist. The critical thing to understand here is that there is a belief in the realm of mental health that chemical imbalances are responsible for many mental disorders. Overgeneralizing You see a larger pattern of negatives based on one event. Finally, Freud used dream analysis to understand a persons innermost wishes. Todays techniques are much more sophisticated and have been used to treat schizophrenia, depression, and some personality and anxiety disorders. Please note that a person may become fixated at any stage, meaning they become stuck, thereby affecting later development and possibly leading to abnormal functioning, or psychopathology. A psychologist believes that all dysfunctional behavior is due to past experiences, and that no symptom or behavior is accidental. d. people who avoid responsibility for their lives and decisions live inauthentic lives. d. the level of rationality in the thought patterns of women. Acceptance and commitment therapy borrows heavily from _____, which teaches individuals to pay attention to the thoughts and feelings that are flowing through their minds, and to accept their thoughts in a nonjudgmental way. The structure of personality. As time goes on, the client starts to ask the therapist's permission for everything, instead of just making the decisions on her own. First, the id is the impulsive part that expresses our sexual and aggressive instincts. 120. How do socioeconomic, gender, environmental, and multicultural factors affect mental illness and its treatment? For communication, decide if the problem is related to speaking, listening, or both and then develop a plan for use in various interpersonal situations. MOST likely, this therapist is a _____ therapist. Gestalt therapy is similar to mindfulness techniques in its emphasis on: Cognitive-behavioral approaches used to treat social anxiety disorder aim to: alter illogical thinking patterns and reduce avoidance behaviors. It consists of the brain and spinal cord. In science, the perspectives used to explain events are known as: The sociocultural model has contributed significantly to our understanding of the nuances of mental illness diagnosis, prognosis, course, and treatment for other races, cultures, genders, ethnicities. This is called: a. fixation. a. short-term psychodynamic therapy b. psychoanalysis c. traditional psychodynamic therapy d. relational psychoanalytic therapy. d. lend itself easily to research. The point where this occurs is called the synapse. Describe the structure of the neuron and all key parts. As these cells die, the brain fails to receive messages about when and how to move. 159. Receptor cells in each of the five sensory systems detect energy. size the different models of abnormality and to avoid oversimplifying the complex nature of human problems. In other words, we assume the person who cut us off is an idiot (dispositional) and do not consider that maybe someone in the car is severely injured and this person is rushing them to the hospital (situational). Cats were food deprived the night before the experimental procedure was to occur. It operates on the reality principle, or an awareness of the need to adjust behavior, to meet the demands of our environment. d. propositions. All this stage of learning signifies is that some learning is already present. This scenario demonstrates trial and error learning or making a response repeatedly if it leads to success. The nervous system. It leads us to adopt our parents values as we come to realize that many of the ids impulses are unacceptable. 83. 20. The biological model of psychology says that psychological disorders are caused by biological problems. b. is not led by a professional clinician. The perspectives do offer hope to people suffering tragedy by asserting that we control our destiny and can make our own choices. d. latent content. A psychologist from which background would agree MOST strongly with this statement? b. a biological predisposition is the primary factor leading to abnormality. 130. Evaluate the usefulness of psychodynamic theory. When a child yells and threatens others, he or she is placed in a time-out, away from the group. It is generally understood that the students who sit in the front of the class are the overachievers and want to earn an A in the class. Which form of therapy helps clients recognize errors in logic and try out new interpretations of events? Which of the following is an argument of critics of the evolutionary perspective? Current multicultural perspectives are MOST likely to focus on the: special external pressures faced by members of a culture. Anti-anxiety medications help with the symptoms of anxiety and include benzodiazepines such as Clonazepam, Alprazolam, and Lorazepam. There is not a leader, and everyone is equal. b. resistance. 114. c. replace problematic behaviors with more appropriate ones. Of course, removing cognition from the study of psychology ignored an important part of what makes us human and separates us from the rest of the animal kingdom. b. neurosis. Right before his death, Skinner (1990) reminded psychologists that the only thing we can truly know and study was the observable. b. control biological factors by focusing on behavior. Dealing with anxiety. Which type of theorist would focus on the athlete's illogical thinking process as a key factor in her subsequent poor performance? Why is this important to a discussion of psychopathology? A cognitive-behavioral therapist would MOST likely recommend: Participants have similar issues. Thoughts, as well as overt behaviors, are acquired and modified by various forms of conditioning. a. catharsis. Which statement is TRUE regarding the models of abnormality? bodily sensations. b. A) The humanistic-existential model B) The family-social perspective C) The cognitive model D) The psychodynamic model B The model of abnormality that focuses on the role of values and choices in behavior is the _____ model. The fundamental unit of the nervous system is the neuron, or nerve cell (See Figure 2.3). 34. a. Which would be a part of your paradigm? If this is true, how can we know anything about controversial matters? Brainscape helps you realize your greatest personal and professional ambitions through strong habits and hyper-efficient studying. For instance, Parkinsons disease is a brain disorder that results in a gradual loss of muscle control and arises when cells in the substantia nigra, a long nucleus considered to be part of the basal ganglia, stop making dopamine. Some are naturally occurring, while others need to be learned. Describe the role of hormonal imbalances in mental illness. b. give insightful interpretations of the clients statements. Module Overview. In operant conditioning, the rule for determining when and how often we will reinforce the desired behavior is called the reinforcement schedule. c. explain the connection between religious practices and mental health. 33. There is no individual model that completely explains human behavior and so each model contributes in its own way. Content that was turned away was said to be repressed. b. increase feelings of gratitude and decrease feelings of fear. 86. Respondent conditioning (also called classical or Pavlovian conditioning) occurs when we link a previously neutral stimulus with a stimulus that is unlearned or inborn, called an unconditioned stimulus. b. unconditional self-regard. You might say neurotransmitters are part of a lock-and-key system. b. social factors leading to stress. The somatic nervous system allows for voluntary movement by controlling the skeletal muscles and carries sensory information to the CNS. I'm here for you." c. feminist therapy. It is difficult to gain informed consent from individuals with mental illness. They also focus on life-enhancing experiences like relationships, love, caring, commitment, courage, creativity, power, will, presence, spirituality, individuation, self-actualization, authenticity, acceptance, transcendence, and awe. For more information, please visit: https://www.psychologytoday.com/therapy-types/existential-therapy. Bacterial and viral infections. a. family-social b. multicultural c. psychodynamic d. humanistic-existential, 135. A general term used for Freuds and Jungs theories is: a. psychiatric. Clarify what psychodynamic techniques are used. b. exposure therapy. Evaluating psychodynamic theory. This information is passed to the nervous system due to the process of transduction and through sensory or afferent neurons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system. This led to a cognitive-behavioral perspective that combines concepts from the behavioral and cognitive models, the latter discussed in the next section. Over time, he begins to understand how events in his early life have impacted how he functions now. To be considered distinct from other conditions, a mental illness must have its own set of symptoms. a. to lessen the power of thoughts b. to stop the client from comparing himself or herself to others c. to decrease internal negative self-talk d. to increase awareness of why the client behaves a certain way. 146. 99. She died shortly after this interrogation on May 28, 1936. 2. 3. Hmm. In fact, in many college classrooms, this is exactly what the instructor does. b. helping the client develop a stronger sense of self and rational thinking. Soon, the patient begins seeking the therapist's approval for all types of decisions, rather than just making the decisions herself. b. cultural deprivation that is characteristic of some groups. What is the problem with a uni-dimensional model of psychopathology? This model dismisses the effect of nonbiological factors on behavior. This is an example of: Members of a family operate very independently of one another. c. deep brain stimulation. A boy believes that he is deserving of love only when he earns good grades. The biopsychosocial model (BPS) was first proposed by George L. Engel and Jon Romano of the University of Rochester in 1977. b. good long-term prognoses. d. They are the brains attempts to understand abnormal electrical activity. This could be a single factor such as a chemical imbalance in the brain, relationship with a parent, socioeconomic status (SES), a fearful event encountered during middle childhood, or the way in which the individual copes with lifes stressors. c. congenital malformations. When I was about eight years old, I would walk up the street in my neighborhood, saying, Im Chicken Little and you cant hurt me. Most ignored me, but some gave me the attention I was seeking, a positive reinforcer. Antipsychotics are used to treat psychosis or conditions that affect the mind, and in which there has been some loss of contact with reality, often including delusions (false, fixed beliefs) or hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that are not really there). They can be used to treat eating disorders, severe depression, PTSD, OCD, ADHD, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. 53. Nikolais grandmother has just baked cookies and is placing them on a cooling rack. In terms of the biological model, neurotransmitters, brain structures, hormones, genes, and viral infections were identified as potential causes of mental illness and three treatment options were given. The so-called new wave of cognitive therapy differs from traditional cognitive therapy in that it emphasizes: a. challenging irrational cognitions. Borderline personality disorder has also been found to be higher in people in low-income brackets (Tomko et al., 2012) and group differences for personality disorders have been found between African and European Americans (Ryder, Sunohara, and Kirmayer, 2015). Maybe it changed to biweekly and I missed the email. Due to this endurance, we say that intermittent or partial reinforcement shows resistance to extinction, meaning the behavior does weaken, but gradually. No one form of couple therapy stands out as superior to others. Hypnosis was used at first and relieved her symptoms, as it had done for many patients (See Module 1). Behaviors and thoughts may influence the development of psychological disorders. b. the role that biology plays in psychological functioning. One option to treat severe mental illness is psychotropic medications. Our life instincts, or Eros, are manifested through it and are the creative forces that sustain life. Negative means that something is being taken away good or bad. c. superego. Important here is that specific culture- and gender-related diagnostic issues are discussed for each disorder, demonstrating increased awareness of the impact of these factors. Transducers or receptor cells in the major organs of our five sensory systems vision (the eyes), hearing (the ears), smell (the nose), touch (the skin), and taste (the tongue) convert the physical energy that they detect or sense and send it to the brain via the neural impulse. Both types of instincts are sources of stimulation in the body and create a state of tension that is unpleasant, thereby motivating us to reduce them. 152. The humanistic perspective focuses on positive regard, conditions of worth, and the fully functioning person while the existential perspective stresses the need for people to re-create themselves continually and be self-aware, acknowledges that anxiety is a normal part of life, focuses on free will and self-determination, emphasizes that each person has a unique identity known only through relationships and the search for meaning, and finally, that we develop to our maximum potential. A person engages in multiple online discussions with a large number of friends on Facebook. Freud believed that consciousness had three levels 1) consciousness which was the seat of our awareness, 2) preconscious that included all of our sensations, thoughts, memories, and feelings, and 3) the unconscious, which was not available to us. A feminist therapist would MOST likely focus on: a. a womans personal responsibility for her own situation. They protect the neuron from harmful substances. a. psychodynamic b. cognitive-behavioral c. humanistic-existential d. biological. What are the three parts of personality according to Freud? c. poverty is a stressor that contributes to dysfunction. These included risk versions of two genes that regulate the flow of calcium into cells. Likewise, twin and family studies have shown that people with first-degree relatives suffering from OCD are at higher risk to develop the disorder themselves. If my mother or father consumes alcohol to feel better when things are tough, and it works, then I might do the same. 117. As opposed to the medical model, which emphasizes mental illness as . b. people are naturally inclined to live positively. For more on the link between cortisol and depression, check out this article: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-athletes-way/201301/cortisol-why-the-stress-hormone-is-public-enemy-no-1. Where do you sit in class, if you are on a physical campus and not an online student? The response re-emerges. d. integrate new behaviors to compensate for other damaging behaviors. d. reality principle. Rogers did try to investigate his propositions scientifically, but most other humanistic-existential psychologists rejected the use of the scientific method. Its key figures were Abraham Maslow, who proposed the hierarchy of needs, and Carl Rogers, who we will focus on here. Which statement about couple therapy is MOST accurate? 63. Which model is MOST likely to suggest using free association to uncover unconscious processes? Mindfulness has been shown to be associated with improvements in which of the following? d. psychotropic treatment. The use of these drugs has been generally beneficial to patients. Most people who receive couple therapy report no real improvement in their functioning.

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